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  Introduction

 

ILAM province is in the south-west of the country, bordering Iraq to the west. Its provincial center is the city of Ilam, covering an area of 19,086 square kilometers. There are 8 counties of Ilam, Mehran, Dehloran, Dareh Shahr, Sarable, Eywan, Abdanan and Arkwaz together with 16 cities in the province. It neighbors Khuzestan province in the south, Lurestan province to the east, Kermanshah province to the north and Iraq to the west with 425 kilometers of common border. The population of the province is approximately 600,000 people.
Ilam central coordination locates in 33.6384°N 46.4226°E.
Ilam is the capital of Ilam Province in western Iran. The Kabir Kuh mountain range lies east of the city. From the west it borders Iraq.
It has an estimated population of 180,000 and is predominantly inhabited by Feyli Kurds.

1.2. Geography and Climate

Ilam province is among the warmest regions of Iran, although the mountainous areas of north and north eastern Ilam are relatively cold. The average annual rainfall province is 578 mm. Ilam's highest point is the peak Kabir Kuh at 2790 m, part of the Zagros mountains.
In 1996, the absolute maximum temperature was 38 °C in August and the minimum temperature was 0.4 °C in February. The number of freezing days in winter was 27 days.

Tar Spring, Dragon Blood:

One of the most interesting things to be found near the city Dehloran is a natural liquid tar spring. Iranians used to use this tar to render ships and roofs waterproof about 3000 years ago. This black spring is located in a natural protected area named Abgarm. Interesting things around this area include mineral water springs, native trees, and bat caves with rare species of bats.
The road to the Black Spring is near city Dehloran and leads to the Abgarm natural protected area. A sign guides visitors to the spring via a narrow road. The last few hundred meters of the road is not suitable for vehicles and requires a short walk to reach to the spring. Visitors will notice the smell of tar as they approach. The spring’s diameter is about 9 meters and hot water full of liquid tar particles flows out of it. There is a fence to protect animals from going nearby and get trapped in the tar.
According to myths told by the native people, this tar spring was the blood of a dragon that was killed by the Iranian hero, Esfandiar.
Ilam is situated in the cold mountainous region of Iran at a height of 1319 m above the mean sea level. Although this city is surrounded by mountains, its climate is also affected by deserts from the west and the south. This region presents a highly variable annual weather profile. Heavy showers or heavy snow in the winter and dusty, hot, dry weather in the summer are normal for this region.

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