Limited archaeological studies and discoveries indicate 6,000 years of
tribal residence in Ilam. Historical evidence indicates that Ilam
province was part of the ancient Elamite Empire. The Ilamians named
their territory Hetamiti, meaning the land of god. In some of the
epigraphs left from Sumerian history, this territory was called Alam,
Alamo, or Alamto meaning the high lands where the sun rises.
By immigration of Aryans and establishment of Aryan kingdoms, Ilam
became a part of their territory. It was also part of the Achaemenid
Empire. Existence of numerous historical vestiges in Lurestan and Ilam
provinces belonging to the Sassanid period indicates the specific
importance of the region in that time. In this period Ilam province was
divided into two regions, Mehrjankadak in the eastern part and Masabazan
at the western part.
Kurdish tribes governed the region from the late 11th century till the early 13th century.
In the 1930 division of Iran, Ilam became a part of Kermanshah
province, only later to become a province by itself. Ilam is still a
tribal province in many ways, but in recent years the tribal relations
have changed drastically.
Bridges from Sassanid era (5 in total), numerous archeological sites
(Teppes) and ruins from Sassanid era and earlier (224 in total),
Ancient reliefs scattered across the province (8 in total) and ancient
urban settlement ruins (22 in total).
Springs, caves (like the cave of Zinegan), 3 protected natural habitats, and provincial parks.
Ilam is a part of the region which created the Elamite Civilization
as one of the earliest civilizations. Based on archaeological
discoveries, this city was an active centre for different periods of
Iranian civilization. In term of architecture there are some historical
sites and some dispersed ruined buildings that give evidence of
civilizations in this region. The considerable buildings that could be
used to study climatic design aspects are mostly referred to the last
The settlements of people were built by cheaper materials therefore
only weak evidences of these types of settlements are visible today. The
Governor Castle, Falahaty Mansion and The Mirgholam Castle are examples
of some surviving traditional buildings in Ilam. The courtyard dwelling
is the main type of the buildings of this period. This type of building
was accepted as the main building type over all Iran for both climatic
and cultural reasons. Brick is the main constructional material in these
buildings. The passive thermal techniques indicated for the Iranian
traditional buildings are commonly used in these buildings. The Governor
Castle of Ilam was built in type of courtyard. The Mirgholam Castle of
Ilam presents a classic Iranian courtyard. The garden and the pound were
the main elements of this type of buildings. The Falahaty Mansion used a
pitched roof as it was regular beside the flat roofs in the traditional
buildings in Ilam earlier.